Friday, March 6, 2009

Epiklesis

1. Contrary to the innovation of the Eastern Orthodox Church{1}, the host is consecrated at the time of the words of Institution, as the Greeks acknowledged at the Ecumenical Council of Florence in 1439 [PG 161:491].{2}

Notes & References
{1} In the 17th century, the Eastern Orthodox Church adopted the novel view of Metropolitan Peter Moghila of Kiev, that the priest consecrates not by the words of Institution, but by the Epiklesis. Pohle, Joseph. "The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrament." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 7 Nov. 2008 < http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05584a.htm>.
{2} Ibid.

2nd Century
East: St. Justin Martyr the Philosopher of Neocaesarea
2. The glorious martyr says in First Apology 66, "Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, 'This do ye in remembrance of Me, this is My body' [Lk 22:19] and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, 'This is My blood;' and gave it to them alone." There is no hint of an Epiklesis at the Last Supper, and the words of Institution consecrated the host.

West: Bishop St. Irenaeus of Lyons (6/28)
3. St. Irenaeus says in Against Heresies 5:2:3, "When, therefore, the mingled cup and the manufactured bread receives the Word of God, and the Eucharist of the Blood and the Body of Christ is made…" The holy bishop says that transubstantiation occurs when the priest utters the words of Institution.

4th Century
East: Bishop St. Gregory of Nyssa (Doctor of the Syro-Malabar & Chaldean Catholic Churches) 3/9
4. The Cappadocian Father says in Catechetical Orations 37, "It is at once changed into the Body by means of the Word, as the Word itself said, 'This is My Body.'"

East: Patriarch St. John I Chrysostom the Great of Constantinople (Doctor) 1/27
5. The testimony of the Holy Hierarch could hardly be more plain. He says [Homily 1:6 On the Betrayal of Judas], "He [Christ] says: 'This is My Body.' This word changes the offering."

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